Canalis Hydra 12 🔺

Canalis Hydra 12 🔺



 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Canalis Hydra 12

In this analysis, we focused on the early specification of body polarity, given the lack of embryonic structure among the four cnidarians. For this purpose, we analyzed the expression of orthologous genes that control body polarity and axis specification in Drosophila melanogaster (ancestral from flies), mouse (ancestral from vertebrates), and Caenorhabditis elegans (ancestral from nematodes). The presence of Pax-C in Hydra vulgaris, and the absence of the gene Nkx1-2 in Acropora millepora, Acropora palmata, Montastraea faveolata, Stylophora pistillata, and Porites astreoides allows us to compare this feature in four groups of cnidarians. For all the sequences utilized in this study, Hydra vulgaris was chosen as the reference species for cnidarian homeostasis and segmental body patterning, because of the availability of a expressed sequence tag data set, and for its large body size, important for comparative transcriptomic studies. We also compared the expression of the Pax genes in Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis. This latter species is an evolutionary intermediate between cnidarians and bilaterians, and has a body plan that shares some morphological features with flatworms, and some similarities with bilaterians, including the presence of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Therefore, it constitutes a good comparison for the similar evolution of the expression of Pax genes in two bilaterian lineages (cephalochordates and vertebrates).

Anatomical examination revealed that the setae lining the gut wall of K. canalis were invaginations of the intestinal epithelium. This suggested that the holoblast could be an invagination of the epithelium. This idea was further strengthened by the comparison of the apical side of the holoblast in side-view and cross-section figures of the cydippids Metridia marginata ( Greeff 1794 ) and S. pistillata (figure 3 ). Remarkably, in both species the side of the holoblast (i.e. the side that faces the apical lumen) is a continuous folding of the epithelium, folded in a pleated, tubular way (figure 3, top row). A similar folding is also present in the amphinomid polyclonal stem cells (L.P.P., pers. comm.)
The α-tubulin transcripts generated here, were used to search for an orthologue using the A. digitifera (Prototheca) expression database from the Coral Transcriptome Database (CTD) (http://etc.usf.edu/coral/ctd/) and the amino acid sequence was further validated in K. canalis by peptide sequencing of the band identified in the Western blot shown in figure 4. The response of the immune system during planarian asexual reproduction is reported for the first time for a cnidarian here. The only C-type lectin domain that matched a K. canalis α-tubulin sequence was also present in N. vectensis and A. digitifera ( Fig 4 ).
To understand the evolutionary history of this cnidarian, the evolution of cnidarians was mapped onto the phylogenetic tree of bilaterians ( Fig 2 ). As expected, cnidarians and bilaterians are distant from the Protostomia deuterostomes and Lophotrochozoa (Mollusca, Arthropoda, Annelida, Nematoda) on the phylogenetic tree. K. canalis is closely related to the aeolian S. pistillata ( Fig 2 ). By comparison of the phylogenetic tree, the diploblast deuterostome Hydra and cnidarian K. canalis form one clade whereas deuterostomes and protostomes form two distinct clades ( Fig 2 ). In addition, the evolutionary history of cnidarians was mapped onto the total-evidence (REV 12) maximum likelihood phylogeny of Bilateria ( Fig 4 ).
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